Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXII (2011)
Proceedings of the SPIE Volume 7863
For a twenty-second year, SD&A was the premier venue for the dissemination of
research into stereoscopic displays and their applications. SD&A attracts key
players in the field – stereoscopic experts from industry and academia were on
our two panels, presenting the two keynote presentations, speakers of the
technical presentations, and in the audience. The conference had an excellent
technical program covering a wide range of stereoscopic topics. This year we
were able to accept a little under half of the submitted papers for oral
presentation, with an additional 37 papers accepted as posters.
This proceedings volume contains the technical papers in support of the
presentations and posters given at the conference. This introduction gives an
overview of the conference – a reminder for those who attended and an insight
into what happened for those who were unable to attend.
The SD&A conference was held 24–27 January 2011 as part of the 2011 IS&T/SPIE
Electronic Imaging: Science and Technology Symposium, at the Hyatt Regency
San Francisco Airport Hotel, next to San Francisco Airport, in Burlingame,
California, USA. This year’s conference grew dramatically: There were 50% more
attendees than last year, making it the best attended since the series began.
Several of this year’s sessions had over 200 people in the room, listening to
presentations on a wide range of stereoscopic topics.
The first day had technical sessions on visual comfort and quality, combining
depth cues, view synthesis, and multiview systems. There was our first keynote, the
two-hour 3D theatre, and our conference banquet.
The first Keynote Presentation was given by Dr. Michael Robinson, Chief Scientist
at RealD. He gave an excellent summary of the current state of stereoscopic 3D,
in both cinema and television.
The two-hour 3D Theatre Session (chaired by Andrew Woods and Chris Ward) is a
regular event that showcases 3D content from around the world. This was the
most popular session of the conference, with over 300 attendees. This year, we
screened the following pieces (or segments thereof) on the 5.6 meter (18 foot)
diagonal stereoscopic projection screen:
(N.B.: items in the Demonstration Category were not judged for the Best of Show
or Honorable Mention awards.)
- “Stereoikkuna” by Riku Naskali (Finland)
- “Hong Kong – Potential Unlimited” by Digital Magic (Hong Kong)
- “Ztring Theory” by Karl Bryhn and Jo Eldøen, Chiptoons (Norway)
- “Go Kia” by Dzignlight (United States)
- “The Girl Who Had No Fear” by John Hart (United States)
- “Gloria (The Death of Me)” by Andrew Murchie, Enhanced Dimensions
- “My Best Stuff!” by Nat Bartholomew, Spinteck (United States)
- “Plasticity 3D” by Ryan Suits, Atomic Cheesecake Productions (United States)
- “Mercedes-Benz 3D 2010” by Lightspeed Design, Inc. (United States)
- “The Army Learning Concept 2015” by Digital Revolution Studios (United
- “Smart Action 3D” by Korean Broadcast Service (South Korea)
- “Stereo Timelapse” by Takashi Sekitani, STEREOeYe (Japan)
- “White Knuckles” by OK Go (United States)
- “Experiments in Stereoscopic Imaging” by Volker Kuchelmeister, UNSW
iCinema Centre (Australia)
- “The Solo Adventures 3D” by The Digital Animation and Visual Effects School
- “Jack Daniels whisky company” by GALI-3D, Arnold Prague (Czech Republic)
- “Highly Strung” by Buzzbomb Media (Australia)
- “Holy Moly” by Passmore Lab (United States)
- “Microworlds” by Passmore Lab (United States)
- “3D Safari: Africa” by Digital Revolution Studios (United States)
- “Coming Home” by Rehela Jagric (Slovenia)
- “Citrullus Lanatus” by Argyris Theos (Greece)
- “3D MOOD Aquarium” by Lightspeed Design, Inc. (United States)
- “Spinteck 3D Shorts” by Nat Bartholomew, Spinteck (United States)
- “Dead Boring 3D” by Dave Edwardz, AFTRS (Australia)
- “Waiting for the End, Linkin Park” by Passmore Lab (United States)
- “Fractal Odyssey” by John Hart and Jerry Oldaker (United States)
- “Go Ahead!” by U-Staff (Japan)
- “Invincible Tiger – The Legend of Han Tao” by Blitz Games Studios (United
- “21st Century 3D Demo Reel” by 21st Century 3D (United States)
- “Keitai Deka – Zenigata Yui” by BS-TBS Inc. (Japan)
- “2009 Stereo Clips” by Enxebre (Spain)
- “Une Nuit Au Cirque 3D” by Olivier Kauffer and Fabien Remblier (France)
- “Gnomeo and Juliet (trailer)” by Walt Disney Studios (United States)
- “Hidden 3D (Opening Title Sequence)” by Dzignlight Studios (United States)
- “Immersive PC Games with NVIDIA 3D Vision” by various games companies
- “Maker Faire” by Stone Circle Productions (United States)
- “3D AFL Grand Final (Australian Rules Football)” by Seven Network (Australia)
and 3Ality Digital (United States)
- “StreetDance 3D (trailer)” by Paradise FX (United States)
- “Tekkonkinkreet – 3D digest” by Tekkonkinkreet Program Committee (Japan)
- “Garo Red Requiem 3D” by Keita Amemiya (Japan).
In recognition of the high quality of material shown at the 3D Theatre, we offered
three “Best of Show” prizes for pieces entered into the Competition Category. The
judges were Dr. Samuel Zhou, Director of Image Technology at IMAX Corporation,
Canada, and Bernard Mendiburu, author of 3D Movie Making: Stereoscopic
Digital Cinema from Script to Screen. The winners and honorable mentions in the
three categories were:
Best of Show – Live Action:
“White Knuckles 3D” by OK Go (United States)
Honorable Mention – Live Action:
“Stereo Timelapse” by Takashi Sekitani, StereoEyE (Japan)
Best of Show – Computer Graphics:
“Fractal Odyssey” by John Hart and Jerry Oldaker (United States)
Honorable Mention – Computer Graphics:
“Holy Moly” by Passmore Labs (United States)
Best of Show – Visual Effects:
“Dead Boring” by Dave Edwardz, AFTRS (Australia)
Honorable Mention – Visual Effects:
“Experiments in Stereoscopic Imaging” by Volker Kuchelmeister, UNSW
iCinema Centre (Australia)
An illustrated listing of the content shown during this year’s 3D Theatre session is
available from the conference website:
Many thanks to Dan Lawrence at Lightspeed Design who handled the data
wrangling for the 3D Theatre session, and Stephan Keith who helped with the
content specifications handling.
The evening concluded with our traditional conference dinner at a new venue: El
Torito on the bay front near the conference hotel. Approximately 60 conference
attendees mingled, talked, and ate in a relaxed atmosphere. We will do it again
The second day of the SD&A conference had technical sessions on applications
and developments, a joint session with the HVEI conference (Human Vision and
Electronic Imaging, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7865) on quality evaluation, the demonstration
session, and the poster session. The full papers from both the technical sessions
and the poster session are all contained in this volume - except for two of the
papers from the joint session which will appear in Proceedings of SPIE Volume
- “Examination of 3D visual attention in stereoscopic video content,”
Huynh-Thu Quan, Luca Schiatti, Technicolor (France) (7865-20), and
- “Quantifying how the combination of blur and disparity affects the
perceived depth,” Junle Wang, Marcus Barkowsky, Vincent Ricordel,
Patrick Le Callet, Univ. de Nantes (France) (7865-21).
The first discussion forum considered 3DTV dangers: truth or fiction. Lenny Lipton
chaired a panel of experts: Marty Banks (UC Berkeley), Eli Peli (Harvard University),
Christopher Riemann (Cincinnati Eye Institute), and Pete Ludé (Sony Electronics).
They were skeptical of the extreme warnings that have recently been released by
consumer electronics companies. Lenny, in particular, pointed out that, in 20
years of selling active glasses, he had never had a single complaint about eye
strain. However, the panel also pointed out that the human visual system never
stops adjusting to its environment and that there are many things we do not
know. There was a plea for display engineers and human vision scientists to
partner in conducting research.
The final event of the day was the ever-popular Demonstration Session, which has
run every year since 1990. Since 2006, this has been a symposium-wide event,
open to demonstrators from all of the Electronic Imaging conferences. It was
pleasing to see a wide range of demonstrations and to see a large audience
actively engaging with the various displays and vendors. The energy in the
demonstration session was astounding and many demonstrators were still going
strong after two and a half hours.
This year the following 3D hardware and 3D software products were on show at
the demonstration session:
- JVC (Rod Sterling) demonstrated a pre-release version of the new GS-TD1
Full-HD stereoscopic camcorder which is scheduled for release in March.
- NVIDIA (Dave Cook and Michael McSorley) showed a 3D Vision Surround
system consisting of the 3D Vision product running across three screens
(Alienware AW2310 120HZ 3D LCD monitors) viewed with 3D Vision active
shutter glasses and running the game Mafia 2. Graphics cards used were
two GeForce GTX580s.
- DDD (Julien Flack and his team) demonstrated their TriDef 3D game and
3D video software driving a large screen 3D TV and two 3D notebook
computers all viewed with active shutter glasses - specifically:
- an HP Envy 17” 3D notebook running EA’s Need for Speed Hot
Pursuit in 3D,
- an Acer 5738DG 3D notebook demonstrating TriDef 3D’s real-time
2D to 3D conversion process for HD video, and
- a Samsung 3D TV driven by a standard shuttle PC with an AMD
Radeon 6000 GPU connecting via HDMI 1.4 and using TriDef 3D’s
game drivers to run EA’s Medal of Honor in 3D.
- Ainsworth & Partners (Richard Ainsworth assisted by Dan Sandin) showed
their stereoscopic panoramic photography system: two cameras on a
motorized mount, with associated software.
- HumanEyes (Assaf Zomet and Shmuel Peleg) demonstrated their multiview
cross-talk reduction mechanism on both an autostereoscopic
monitor and on lenticular 3D prints.
- Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto (Inna Tsirlin & Laurie
Wilcox) showed the experimental stimuli for their work on evaluating the
effect of cross-talk (as presented in SPIE paper 7863-37).
- Ronald S. Karpf demonstrated a prototype of their continuously adjustable
- Accurex Measurement showed their StereoScan 3D scanning hardware
- Volfoni demonstrated their ActiveEyes glasses that can work with (almost)
any active or passive circularly polarized display.
- The University of Tsukuba (Hideki Kakeya and his team) had two
demonstrations: both variations on integral imaging, using beam splitters
and multiple displays to produce three-dimensional multi-view images.
- The Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (Yasuhiro Takaki and
Junya Nakamura) showed a super multi-view display with viewing zones
only 2.6mm wide. Each eye had eight abutting viewing zones, so head
movement was restricted. Zones this narrow allowed some people to
converge and accommodate at the same depth, other than the screen
- Lightspeed Design (Chris Ward) demonstrated their DepthQ polarization
modulator in operation with their latest DepthQ HD projector.
- 3M Company (Michael Sykora, Vincent King and Glenn Casner) showed
their new two-view autostereoscopic display, which is used in a recently
released commercial device.
- ELDIM (Pierre Boher) provided literature on their system for performance
characterization of autostereoscopic displays.
A prize was awarded for the best demonstration at the session. The judging panel
was chaired by Prof. Neil Dodgson. The prize was awarded to HumanEyes, with
honorable mentions to York University and the Tokyo University of Agriculture and
An extensive photo montage and listing of the demonstration session and exhibits
from this year’s SD&A conference will be available on the conference website:
The third day of the SD&A conference had technical sessions on
autostereoscopic displays, crosstalk, 3D perception and interaction. There was
the second keynote and the symposium reception with a 3D gaming
The second Keynote Presentation was given by Prof. Ramesh Raskar (MIT Media
Lab). He inspired the audience with his talk of 4D, 5D, 6D and 8D displays. He
gave a broad sweep across a range of ideas coming out of his laboratory,
leaving the audience with many new ideas. Further information is available from
The Electronic Imaging Symposium Reception on Wednesday evening was a
great way to chat and relax with colleagues. As an added attraction, two 3D
gaming demonstration systems were setup during the reception to add a bit of
fun to the evening. Each system consisted of a new JVC RS40 LCoS Full-HD 3D
projector, each driven by a Playstation 3 console running in 3D mode, projecting
onto a large projection screen and viewed using active shutter glasses. The PS3
3D games being shown were “Tron: Evolution” on the first system and “Avatar: The
Game” on the second system. Many thanks to Rod Sterling and Steve Inoue from
JVC and Stephan Keith for supporting this event with equipment and helping with
setup. Many attendees enjoyed playing these systems in 3D.
For the first time, SD&A went into a fourth day. There were technical sessions on 3D
content, stereoscopic production and playback, and the second of our
The second discussion forum considered screen size factors. The panel comprised
Bernard Mendiburu (Chair), David Broberg (CableLabs), John Merrit (The Merritt
Group), Jukka Häkkinen (Aalto University) and Frédéric Devernay (INRIA).
All sessions at this year’s SD&A conference were video recorded thanks to River
Valley Technologies. Editing is underway and the content will be available online
A final prize was offered at the conference for the best use of the stereoscopic
projection tools during the technical presentations. The winner, chosen by the
SD&A conference chairs, was:
The prizes this year were copies of Stereoscopic Displays and Applications 1990-
2009: A Complete 20-Year Retrospective and The Engineering Reality of Virtual
Reality 1994-2009 (Selected SPIE/IS&T papers on DVD-ROM), published by SPIE in
2010, and copies of Bernard Mendiburu’s book 3D Movie Making: Stereoscopic
Digital Cinema from Script to Screen, published in 2009 by Elsevier.
Congratulations to all our prize-winners in the cinema, demonstration, and
- Christopher Riemann (Cincinnati Eye Institute & MedNet Technologies),
“Machine vision and vitrectomy: three-dimensional high definition video
for surgical visualization in vitreoretinal surgery.”
Many individuals and companies contributed in various ways to the success of
this year’s SD&A conference:
- The major sponsors of this year’s conference were IMAX Corporation
(Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) and DepthQ Stereoscopic (Bellevue,
Washington). Conference sponsorship is a valuable way for companies to
support the running of the conference and to gain marketing exposure.
IMAX and DepthQ are both key players in the stereoscopic industry, and
we thank them for their support.
- We also appreciate the support of this year’s stereoscopic projection
sponsors: Christie Digital (Cypress, California), Visitech 3D (Los Angeles,
California) and STRONG / MDI Screen Systems (Joliette, Quebec,
The ability to present high-quality large-screen stereoscopic images and
video at the conference is vital to the conference’s success. This year we
had a Christie Digital Mirage WU7K-M projector (1920x1200 resolution, 16:9
aspect ratio, 3 chip DLP, 6300 lumens, provided by Christie Digital)
projecting onto a 4.9x2.7 meter screen (provided by STRONG / MDI
Screen Systems and setup by Visitech 3D), outputting frame-sequential
circularly-polarized 3D (at 120Hz) by way of a DepthQ active polarization
modulator (provided by DepthQ Stereoscopic). The system was driven by
a DepthQ stereoscopic media server for playback of all of the
stereoscopic video content shown during the 3D Theatre. Many thanks for
a for a job done extremely well go to: Chris Ward and Dan Lawrence from
DepthQ Stereoscopic; Wayne Bickley from Christie Digital; Brad Nelson
from Visitech 3D, François Barrette from Strong / MDI Screen Systems; and
Adrian Romero and staff from Spectrum Audio Visual. The AV setup was
project managed by Diana Gonzalez from IS&T and Andrew Woods from
- We thank our media sponsors who helped promote the conference:
Veritas et Visus and Dimension 3.
- We very much appreciate the dedicated support of Stephan R. Keith (SRK
Graphics Research), who had a multi-tasked role at this conference,
helping support the AV needs of all of our presenters.
- We are grateful to all of the providers of 3D content for the 3D Theatre
session for allowing their content to be shown to the conference
- Thanks to the demonstration session presenters for bringing equipment to
show. A lot of equipment traveled from overseas, making the contribution
to the meeting particularly worthy of additional praise.
- The conference committee plays an important role throughout the year,
ensuring the correct technical direction of the meeting. Sincere thanks go
to our founding chair, John Merritt, and our committee, Gregg Favalora,
Hideki Kakeya, Takashi Kawai, Janusz Konrad, Vivian Walworth, Chris
Ward, Michael Weissman, and Samuel Zhou.
- Thanks also to the staff at IS&T and SPIE, who were instrumental in helping
to organize the meeting.
- Most importantly, we thank the conference authors and attendees, who
ultimately made this meeting such a successful event. Thanks especially to
those who travel a long way to join us each year.
Conference activities do not stop at the end of the January meeting. The SD&A
conference website and Linked-In group provide focuses for conference
activities during the time between conferences. We will soon be actively seeking
abstracts for the 2012 conference, with a deadline in June 2011 - see the website
for details and deadlines. You can join the conference mailing list to receive
conference announcements: visit the SD&A conference website for details. The
website has an extensive collection of photographs highlighting the activities of
past conferences. In addition the website hosts the stereoscopic virtual library,
which contains several historically important books that have been digitized, in
full, into PDF format, and are available for free download. We have an active
discussion group on the business networking site LinkedIn:
Visit the conference website to gain an understanding of the past, present, and
future of stereoscopic imaging and, most of all, think now about submitting a
paper or attending next year’s conference. The Stereoscopic Displays and
Applications conference website is at:
Next year, the 23rd conference will be held for three (or possibly four) days in the
period 23–26 January 2012, at the Hyatt Regency San Francisco Airport Hotel, as
part of the 2012 IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging: Science & Technology Symposium.
The hotel is twenty minutes from central San Francisco by public transport. It is
very close to the international airport and there will be free shuttle buses running
from San Francisco International Airport to the conference venue. Parking is easy
for local attendees. The conference will be in the same week as Photonics West
(which will be held in central San Francisco) with all SD&A attendees
automatically being registered for access for the Photonics West exhibition.
The 2012 SD&A conference will continue a tradition of presenting and
demonstrating the latest technologies relevant to stereoscopic displays and
applications. Please consider attending, presenting, or demonstrating at the 2012
Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference. We hope to see you there!
Andrew J. Woods
Nicolas S. Holliman
Neil A. Dodgson
The full conference proceedings is available for purchase in hardcopy or digital.