Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X (2003)
Proceedings of the SPIE Volume 5006
Welcome to Proceedings of SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X
Vol. 5006. This volume contains papers from the two complementary conferences
Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIV and The Engineering Reality of
Virtual Reality 2003. This year's conferences were held at the Santa Clara Convention
Center, Santa Clara, California, USA, as part of the IS&T- and SPIE-sponsored Electronic
Imaging: Science and Technology Symposium which comprised 21 different
This year's Stereoscopic Displays and Applications (SD&A) conference - the 14th in
the series - had very good representation from a broad range of attendees: industry
and academia, enthusiasts and professionals, suppliers and users, students and
teachers. The conference was held during the three-day period 21-23 January 2003
and featured a broad range of topics, presentations, and events.
The first day of the conference started with a session on Stereoscopic Display Systems,
chaired by Andrew Woods. The four papers in this session discussed topics that
included binocular retinal laser displays, tiled stereoscopic projection displays, the use
of random dot stereograms, and a thought-provoking talk on whether a screenless 3D
display is possible.
The second session of the conference, Autostereoscopic Displays I: Integral Imaging,
was chaired by Shojiro Nagata. Five papers discussed various aspects of this special
form of autostereoscopic display technology including computer generation of
integral images, capture and display systems, and computer processing of integrally
captured 3D images.
The third and fourth sessions of the conference continued the theme of
autostereoscopic displays. Neil Dodgson chaired the session Autostereoscopic
Displays II and John Merritt chaired the session Autostereoscopic Displays III.
Autostereoscopic displays continue to be a topic of keen interest to conference
attendees, evidenced by the standing-room-only crowd attending most of these
papers. The 10 papers discussed various topics including improved optics and
components, position adaption, applications, and mathematical analysis for various
types of autostereoscopic displays including pupil projection displays, parallax barrier
displays, lenticular displays, and volumetric displays. The continued advancement
and interest in autostereoscopic displays was further illustrated by the large number of
autostereoscopic displays presented at the demonstration session on the Thursday
afternoon following (discussed below).
A standby paper was presented in the first of these sessions by Yahuhiro Takaki from
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (Japan) titled "A novel 3D display using
an array of LCD panels." His paper was originally presented as an invited paper in the
Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Applications IX conference (Proceedings of SPIE
Vol. 5003). The manuscript for his presentation will appear in that proceedings volume
(paper number 5003-29).
The final formal session of the day was the 3D Video Screening Session chaired by
Andrew Woods. This session allows us to showcase large screen examples of how 3D
video is being used and produced around the world. This year we screened the
following 3D material (or segments thereof) on the conference's high-quality 3D rear
"Help Me", a 2D music video by Timo Maas and Perfecto Records (London),
which features a 3D comic book theme in the music video (using motion
parallax, anaglyph colors, and analogs of other 3D aspects to reproduce the
look of a 3D comic book on the 2D screen). *1
"Lightspeed Design Group 3D Show Reel" by Lightspeed Design Group (Bellevue,
Washington) featuring a range of computer animated 3D video productions for
clients including Nintendo Gamecube, Proctor & Gamble, and various science
"HD3D Sports Demo" by Max Penner, Paradise FX Corp. (Van Nuys, California)
was a compilation of a range of sports footage including a high school football
game, pro wrestling, and other sports action all set to a lively music score in 3D
HD TV format. *5
"NAC Army/NASCAR" by BRTRC, EFX, and Paradise FX Corp. was an army-themed
piece that combined real-world footage with computer animation in 3D
HDTV format. *5
"Nekrofilm 3D Sampler" and "A Slice of the World" by Lazlo Magyar, Nekrofilm
(Hungary). The former is a collection of material from Nekrofilm's works including
computer animations and real-world footage. The latter is a short documentary
illustrating the wonders of Hungary. *5
A range of 2D footage converted to 3D by Dynamic Digital Depth (Santa
Monica, California) including a Britney Spears Pepsi advertisement, Tokyo Motor
Show screen test, "Men in Black" short, "Shrek" trailer, and Boeing Business Jet
"Talking Fish in 3D" and "Jako's and the Pet's Thief" (teaser) by Enrique Criado,
Enxebre Sistemas (Spain) *5
3D ridefilms "Ali Baba's Jewel Quest" and "Phantom Loop" by Multi-Dimensional
Studios (Midvale, Utah) *3
A 3D educational video titled "Mondo 3D" by Fernando Iñigo, 3D World
"Ultimate G's" and "Radar Men From the Moon" by Slingshot Entertainment
(Burbank, California) *3
Two 3D videos promoting pharmaceutical products from 21st Century 3D (New
"Aconcague - The Top of the Western World" and "Africa 3D" (teaser) by Tom
Riederer, Tree-D Films (Santa Barbara, California) *2
Stereoscopic music visualizations demonstrated by John Miller, Dep3D (Los
It should be noted that this year's screening session presented 3D videos from a wide
range of sources and playback systems including: SVHS [*1], field-sequential 3D
miniDV [*2], field-sequential 3D DVD [*3], two-disc 3D DVD [*4], and computer 3D
video playback using two software systems: "DepthQ" provided by LightSpeed
Design Group [*5] for dual-channel 3D playback up to HDTV resolutions, and "TriDef"
provided by Dynamic Digital Depth [*6] for field-sequential 3D NTSC playback from
The evening concluded with a delightful meal at Tresca's Restaurant in the Westin
Hotel adjacent to the convention center. It was a good chance for about 40 of the
conference attendees to mix and talk in a relaxed atmosphere.
The second day of the conference commenced with a session titled Stereoscopic
Video, chaired by Andrew Woods. Topics of the three papers in this session included
computer playback of stereoscopic video, development of stereoscopic video
cameras, and assessing visual comfort of stereoscopic video.
The second session of the day was Stereoscopic Image Coding, chaired by Lew
Stelmach. The four papers in this session discussed methods for the reduction of the
bandwidth of stereoscopic still images and stereoscopic image streams, as well as
perceptual evaluation of the performance of stereoscopic image compression.
After lunch the two technical paper sessions focused on the topic of Human Factors
in Stereoscopic Imaging. John Merritt chaired the session Human Factors I and Lew
Stelmach chaired the session Human Factors II. The eight papers in these sessions
covered a wide range of topics including assessing the effect of stereoscopic image
crosstalk/ghosting, display brightness, viewer accommodation, camera configuration,
and image alignment on the perception of stereoscopic image quality.
The final session of the day was a discussion forum chaired by Lenny Lipton of
StereoGraphics Corporation (San Rafael, California). The discussion topic was The
Future of Stereoscopic Imaging and panel members were Daniel Sandin of University
of Illinois/Chicago, Mark Bolas of Stanford University, Dave Cook of nVIDIA Corp.
(Santa Clara, California), and Jeff Fergason of Ilixco Inc. (Menlo Park, California). The
discussion forum covered a lot of ground and had particularly lively input from the
audience. A more detailed review of the discussion forum has been prepared by
Lenny Lipton and appears following this proceedings introduction.
The third day of the conference started with a session on Stereoscopic Image
Processing chaired by John Merritt and Janusz Konrad. The six papers in this session
covered topics which included using focus cues in 2D to 3D conversion algorithms,
reducing aliasing artifacts in multiview lenticular autostereoscopic displays, algorithms
for producing anaglyph 3D images, and a particularly interesting application of
stereoscopic imaging for the analysis of turbulent flames.
After lunch the Poster Pop Session chaired by Vivian Walworth allowed the poster
authors to provide a short oral review of their posters. The posters were made
available for viewing during the following demonstration session.
This year's Demonstration and Poster Session again featured a very good selection of
autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) displays. There were six stereoscopic displays on
display, complemented by another two stereoscopic displays. This session is regularly
a very well attended event since it provides attendees with a hands-on up-close
experience with a large range of stereoscopic hardware and software. The session,
chaired by Neil Dodgson and Andrew Woods, included these demonstrations:
4D Vision (Germany) demonstrated their autostereoscopic 50-in. plasma display.
A 3D manipulation device (called the Yo Yo) for controlling 3D VR models was
demonstrated by Andreas Simon of Fraunhofer IMK (Sankt Augustin, Germany).
A UNIX workstation drove an OpenGL display of various 3D models that could be
manipulated with the Yo Yo device.
Steve Berezin of Berezin Stereo Photography (Mission Viejo, California)
demonstrated a wide variety of consumer stereoscopic products, including
various 3D glasses and viewers, books, and cameras.
Parallax Player software, high-resolution 22-in. Synthagram autostereoscopic
monitor (model 222), 42-in. Synthagram (model 422), and 20-in. Synthagram
(model 202) from Stereographics Corporation.
Dep3D (Los Gatos, California) demonstrated a 40-in. stereoscopic rear-projection
TV using polarized 3D glasses and a range of stereo-enabled video games.
Hideki Kakeya of University of Tsukubu (Tsukuba, Japan) demonstrated a 3D
workbench based on a desktop autostereoscopic display. (Visit the conference
website for a video of this display in operation.)
Takashi Kawai of Waseda University (Tokyo, Japan) demonstrated Stereoedit
software available from Lets Corporation (Japan). Stereoedit has been
developed for the editing of digital stereoscopic video files.
Dynamic Digital Depth (Santa Monica, California) demonstrated a range of 2D
to 3D conversion technologies including a new computer display driver for
generating multiview stereoscopic displays for appropriately enabled computer
games and applications in scientific visualization. A StereoGraphics Synthagram
monitor was used on this stand.
Ian Howard of I Porteus Publishing (Canada) had the two-volume book Seeing in
Depth on display.
In addition, there were the four posters - and one of the poster presenters, Amar
Agoun from De Montfort University (Leicester, UK), had an integral imaging
photograph on display.
Sharp UK provided a stack of flyers about the 3D Consortium that has recently
Pictures (and some videos) of the demonstrations listed above are available on the
conference website: http://www.stereoscopic.org
The SD&A conference concluded with the Keynote Presentation presented this year
by Emeritus Professor Ian Howard from the Centre for Vision Research, York University
(Canada). Professor Howard's presentation titled, "Understanding stereoscopic vision,"
reviewed the landmarks in the physiological and psychophysical study of
stereoscopic vision as well as reviewing some recent developments in understanding
stereoscopic vision. Quoting Professor Howard, "The study of binocular vision goes
back to Euclid in the 3rd century BC and Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD. The study of
stereoscopic vision started when Charles Wheatstone invented the stereoscope in
1836. In 1967 Barlow, Blakemore, and Pettigrew discovered brain cells sensitive to
binocular disparity." Professor Howard's lively presentation was richly illustrated with a
large collection of stereoscopic slides and received considerable interest from the
audience, promoting much discussion following the presentation.
At the conclusion of the keynote presentation, Conference Cochair Andrew Woods
thanked Professor Howard for his presentation and with this being the final event of
the Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference for this year the opportunity
was taken to make a range of other announcements, thank yous, and to close the
This year a number of prizes were offered as part of the SD&A conference. The prize
for the best use of the available stereoscopic presentation tools during the
conference technical sessions was won by James Tam of the Communications
Research Centre (Canada) for his presentation "Comparison of stereoscopic and
non-stereoscopic video images for visual telephone systems." James' presentation
included field-sequential stereoscopic video played back from Betacam SP to
illustrate the various stereoscopic video test sequences used in his study (including a
number of amusing out-takes). James' prize was a copy of Ian Howard's book Seeing
in Depth and a copy of StereoGraphics Parallax Player. James actually already had a
copy of Seeing in Depth so he very graciously agreed that the book be presented to
Christian Guill and Elisabeth Rieper of the Felix 3D research project in Germany who
presented a paper on the first day of the conference. We're sure the book will receive
a considerable amount of use from this very active student group. The final prize was
offered for "The presentation we would have most liked to have seen in 3D (but
wasn't)." This prize was awarded to Laurie Wilcox (York University, Canada) for her
interesting presentation, "Determinants of perceived image quality: ghosting vs.
Many individuals and companies contributed in various ways to make this a very
This year the Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference was formally
sponsored by NuVision by MacNaughton Inc. Conference sponsorship is a very
valuable way for companies to support the running of the conference and gain
valuable marketing exposure. We thank NuVision for their support.
The conference committee plays an important role in ensuring the correct
technical direction of the meeting and of course, the members play an
important role at the conference itself including chairing sessions. Sincere thanks
go to Neil Dodgson, Janusz Konrad, Shojiro Nagata, Lew Stelmach, and Vivian
A new feature of this year's conference was a series of Lunchtime Discussion
Topics that were organized by Lew Stelmach. These informal events provided an
opportunity for attendees to discuss a nominated topic whilst eating their lunch.
On the first day Eric Brisson (Boston University) and Nicholas Beser (Johns Hopkins
University) facilitated discussions on tiled stereoscopic displays and the added
value of stereoscopic imaging. On the second day Lew Stelmach
(Communications Research Centre) and Julien Flack (Dynamic Digital Depth)
facilitated discussions on Human Factors and Stereoscopic Image Compression.
On the third day Vivian Walworth (Jasper Consulting) facilitated a discussion
regarding the Stereoscopic Lexicon. Thank you to the participants, facilitators,
and organizer of these sessions.
The ability to present high-quality large-screen stereoscopic images and video at
the conference is an extremely important part of the conference. Many people
and companies contributed hardware, software, and expertise to make this a
truly impressive show. A particular thank you goes to Brad Nelson of Nelsonex (Los
Gatos, California), Spectrum Audiovisual (Denver, Colorado), Chris Ward of
LightSpeed Design Group, John Miller of Dep3D, Jason Goodman of 21 st Century
3D, Julien Flack of Dynamic Digital Depth, and Mike Weissman (Santa Barbara,
California). Conference video equipment included Betacam SP player, DVD
player, 3D demultiplexer, two QD line doublers, stereoscopic rear projection
screen (all provided by Nelsonex), SVHS Player, two Sony VPL-FX50 projectors
(Spectrum Audio Visual), 40-in. rear projection polarized stereoscopic TV (dep3D),
DepthQ stereoscopic video playback software and computer (LightSpeed
Design Group), dual industrial DVD players and DVD playback synchronizer (21 st
Century 3D), computer with field-sequential NTSC SVideo output (for playback of
2D to 3D converted video footage), DTI autostereoscopic display (DDD), and
miniDV player (Mike Weissman).
Thanks also to Takashi Sekitani (Tokyo, Japan) who provided a specially modified
version of his software "3D Slide Projector" for the purposes of digital stereoscopic
slide presentation at the conference.
A special thank you also goes to those who helped make the 3D video screening
session run so smoothly.
Thanks to the demonstration session presenters for making equipment available
to show to the conference attendees. Some equipment traveled from overseas,
making the contribution to the meeting particularly praise-worthy.
Particular thanks are also due to the staff at SPIE and IS&T who are instrumental in
helping organize the conference.
But most importantly we must thank the conference authors and attendees who
ultimately make this meeting the successful event that it is.
The conference activities don't stop at the end of the January meeting. The SD&A
conference website remains as a focus for conference activities during the time
between conferences. We will be seeking abstracts for the 2004 conference mid-year.
You can join a mailing list to receive conference announcements. The SD&A
conference website provides a focal point for many activities and a timetable for
important meeting deadlines, and highlights the activities of past conferences. The
website also hosts the stereoscopic virtual library from which two classic texts are
available for free download: Herbert McKay's "Three Dimensional Photography"and
Lenny Lipton's "Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema". Visit the conference website
to gain an understanding of the past, present, and future of stereoscopic imaging,
and most of all think now about presenting a paper or attending next year's
conference. The Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference website is
located at: <http://www.stereoscopic.org>.
This year's Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality conference began with papers
highlighting techniques and applications useful in a number of areas. An extremely
ambitious project to digitize and immersively present an entire city in China was
presented by Qiang Lie and Deren Li of the Sichuan Bureau of Surveying and
Mapping in China. Sung-Jim Kim presented work at University of California at Davis on
enhancing data consistency in distributed environments while a joint project between
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Arts et Métiers and Peugeot Citroen for immersive car
design review was described.
The chair baton was then passed from Shojiro Nagata to Daniel Sandin who
introduced a five-paper session that focused on two efforts. The first was a
collaboration between the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and
Virtual Surfaces Inc. to create virtual models of dinosaurs and then study possible
behaviors and biomechanics. Thanks to Arthur Anderson for carrying the
presentations. Next, the Nara Institute of Science and Technology presented a series
of papers outlining their progress on an augmented reality and an omnidirectional
The post-lunch crowd enjoyed a session chaired by Guillaume Moreau that
concentrated on augmented reality systems. The first paper was a prototype design
from Kumamoto University and Matrox that registers driver navigation cues with the
view from an automobile; a multigroup effort to provide environmental management
cues in a virtual environment; a deceptively simple video-based hand-tracking system
at the University of Illinois; and a hierarchical depth estimation technique for image
synthesis in mixed reality.
The final session of the day included papers describing a free viewpoint television
system from Nagoya University; a stunning technology which provides depth keying
for video and film by 3DV Systems Ltd; a collaboration on a system for virtual
situational awareness of data streams from a vacuum chamber testing rig; and a
project from Stanford University to create interfaces that can be manipulated to
create 3D geometry on desktop computer systems.
As a final note, the Stereoscopic Displays and Applications and The Engineering
Reality of Virtual Reality conferences will be on again next year, in the period 18-24
January 2004. Next year we will be back down in San Jose, California, at the San Jose
Convention Center as part of the Electronic Imaging 2004 symposium. Photonics West
will follow the week after Electronic Imaging also at the San Jose Convention Center
(as such, again for 2004, the Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference and
the Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality conference will not be part of Photonics
West). The 2004 meetings should be an even bigger and better event so please
consider attending, presenting, or demonstrating at the 2004 Stereoscopic Displays
and Applications conference or The Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality conference.
Andrew J. Woods
Mark T. Bolas
John O. Merritt
Stephen A. Benton