Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX (2002)
Proceedings of the SPIE Volume 4660
Welcome to the proceedings of the 13th annual Stereoscopic Displays and Applications
conference and the 9th annual The Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality conference
held at the San Jose Convention Center as part of the IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging
2002 and Photonics West 2002. In this introduction we will take the opportunity to
discuss the many highlights of this year's conferences—an aspect of the two meetings
that cannot be garnered from just reading the conference papers alone. The conferences
not only provided the opportunity for the presentation of research results but also
provided a venue for those active or with an interest in the field to meet and take part
in social exchange.
This year's Stereoscopic Displays and Applications (SD&A) conference was held over
the three day period 21-23 January 2002 and combined technical sessions with
complementary activities such as the demonstration session, keynote presentation,
standards forum, 3D video screening session, and the author/attendee dinner.
The first day started with our regular session on "Human Factors in Stereoscopic Imaging," chaired by John Merritt. The four papers presented topics which included:
stereoscopic image overlap in teleoperation applications, comfortable stereoscopic
depth range, convergence accommodation mismatch in HMDs, and the perception of
stereoscopic misalignment on large format theater screens such as IMAX 3D.
The second session of the conference was on "Stereoscopic Video," chaired by Andrew
Woods. The five papers in this session discussed topics such as 3D HDTV, 3D DVD
authoring, software for the correction of alignment errors in stereoscopic video, and
ghosting in time-sequential stereoscopic displays. The paper presented by Sharp Labs
of Europe dealt with the desirable attributes of a digital stereoscopic still camera. The
audience enthusiastically inquired whether they were preparing to release such a
camera soon but unfortunately the answer was no - for the time being at least... John
Rupkalvis' presentation (co-authored by Daniel Dupont) was illustrated by some 3D
DVD segments from the 1982 movie "Parasite." This DVD is believed to be the first
anamorphic 3D DVD conversion.
The afternoon sessions started with "Digital Stereoscopic Imaging," chaired by Vivian
Walworth. Four papers discussed topics including 2D to 3D conversion, intermediate
view reconstruction and stereoscopic video compression. Phil Harman and James Tam's
presentations used stereoscopic video to illustrate their presentation.
The last technical paper session of the day was "Integral 3D Imaging," chaired by
Stephen Benton. This is the first time in the conference's history that we have had a full
session dedicated to this display technique, showing a renewed interest in this display
technique, which dates back to 1908. The five papers presented covered topics from
integral image generation and integral image processing to display system
enhancements and assessment.
This year's 3D Video Screening Session held on the Monday evening was again a very
well attended session. The purpose of this session is to provide a snapshot of how 3D
Video is being used and produced around the world. This year we screened the
following 3D material (or segments thereof) on the conference's high-quality 3D rear
The evening came to a close with a delightful meal at the nearby BoTown Chinese
Restaurant in downtown San Jose. It was a good chance for some of the conference
attendees to mix and talk in a relaxed atmosphere.
- "Corkscrew Hill", a digitally projected stereoscopic ride attraction at Busch
Gardens (Williamsburg, Virginia). Written and directed by Jeff Kleiser and Diana
Walczak, and produced by Kleiser-Walzcak (North Adams, Massachusetts).
- "Santa Lights Up New York", a 70mm stereoscopic film directed by Jeff Kleiser
and Diana Walczak for Radio City Music Hall (New York). Produced by Kleiser-
Walczak (North Adams, Massachusetts).
- A 10 minute clay animated film titled "The Box" filmed in 3DHDTV and
produced by NHK Technical Services (Tokyo, Japan).
- "Fossil" by Brian McClave (London, UK), with music by George Millward.
- Segments from the two of the world's first commercially released fieldsequential
3D DVD titles "Encounter in the Third Dimension" and "Haunted
Castle". These films were originally produced for IMAX 3D theatres by nWave
Pictures (Brussels, Belgium) and distributed on 3D DVD by Slingshot
Entertainment (Burbank, California).
- A product promotion piece titled "Fresh Ideas Inspired by Dreams" produced by
21st Century 3D (New York, New York) for Broan/NuTone (Hartford,
Wisconsin). This segment was also played back from field-sequential 3D DVD
and featured footage filmed with the new 3D lens for the Canon XL1 digital
camcorder, as featured at last year's SD&A demonstration session.
- "My City of Ruins WTC 9-11 3D" from CinemaVision3D (Oceanside, New York).
- Several music videos converted from 2D to 3D by Dynamic Digital Depth
(Perth, Australia and Santa Monica, California)
The second day of the conference started with a session on "Volumetric 3D displays,"
chaired by Vivian Walworth. Two papers discussed CRT illuminated swept volume
displays and another paper discussed a laser illuminated swept volume display.
The day's remaining three technical session were dedicated to "Autostereoscopic
Displays," chaired by Shojiro Nagata and Neil Dodgson. Eleven papers discussed a wide
range of topics related to autostereoscopic displays: new methods, technical analyses,
refinements to existing methods, etc. These sessions and the single sessions on
volumetric and integral displays illustrate the considerable continued interest and
activity in glasses-free 3D displays.
The final session of the day was dedicated to a discussion forum on the topic of
Standards for Stereoscopic Imaging. Andrew Woods chaired this session with panel
members John Rupkalvis and Vivian Walworth. This forum is summarized in a separate
document in this proceedings.
The final day of this year's Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference started
with a session on "Stereoscopic Display Applications," chaired by John Merritt. The
three papers discussed topics including stereoscopic computer graphics and aerospace
The second session of the day was "Stereoscopic Camera Systems." chaired by Andrew
Woods. The two papers in this session discussed techniques for the capture of
stereoscopic X-ray images for security screening applications, and the development and
testing of a 3D adapter for camcorders.
After lunch, the poster pop session, chaired by Vivian Walworth, was the opportunity
for the five poster authors to give a brief verbal introduction to their posters, which were
on display during the following Demonstration and Poster session.
This year's Demonstration and Poster Session featured the largest ever number of
autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) displays to be featured at the conference. There were
6 autostereoscopic displays on display, complemented by another 5 stereoscopic
displays. The session was once again extremely popular since it gives attendees a
hands-on up-close experience with a large range of stereoscopic hardware and software.
The session, chaired by Andrew Woods and Neil Dodgson included these
The four other poster authors were also available to discuss their poster papers.
- NeurOk (Russia) demonstrated their 3D display based on two stacked LCD
- Hideki Kakeya (University of Tsukuba, Japan) demonstrated a large lens
autostereoscopic display in support of his poster paper.
- VREX (Elmsford, New York) demonstrated a new 21" uPol based stereoscopic
LCD flat panel display. Attendees wore linear polarised 3D glasses to view the
display. VREX also demonstrated their dual LCD projector 3D projection
system, which could be used with either the VREX VR-Video Converter or the
Cyviz XPO.1. Again, attendees wore linear polarized glasses to view the
projected 3D image. The playback source was a 3D DVD.
- Chistophe Grossman from n4 (Hamburg, Germany) demonstrated a lenticularbased
autostereoscopic display on a notebook computer.
- Brad Nelson, Nelsonex (Los Gatos, California) and John Miller, Volumedia (Los
Gatos, California) demonstrated a rear-projection 3D TV. Attendees wore linear
polarized 3D glasses to view the stereoscopic images sourced from 3D DVD or
a dual-head computer running several stereoscopic compatible games.
- Stereographics Corporation (San Rafael, CA) demonstrated their Synthagram
monitor - an autostereoscopic display that outputs 9 different views from a flat
panel LCD display using a slanted lenticular lens array. Footage shown was a
selection of material converted from 2D to 3D by Dynamic Digital Depth.
- Shojiro Nagata (InterVision, Japan) showed an image splitter prism attachment
for taking side-by-side stereoscopic image pairs with a standard digital camera
- Markus Andiel (University of Kassel, Germany) demonstrated his eye tracking
solution using web-cams.
- Chao-Hsu Tsai from the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI)
(Hsinchu, Taiwan) demonstrated a 3D micropolariser array LCD panel laptop
computer that is viewed with linear polarised 3D glasses.
- Dynamic Digital Depth (Perth, Australia and Santa Monica, California)
demonstrated their Tridef 3D digital video player with a Stereographics
Synthagram autostereoscopic monitor. Footage on show included a range of 2D
to 3D converted music videos - as shown at Monday night's 3D video screening
session. They also had on display their 3D video demultiplexer and 3D video
- 4D Vision (Germany) demonstrated the company's 15-in. 4DVision
autostereoscopic display based on the use of a wavelength selective parallax
- Vision Drei (Germany) demonstrated their 3D camera station and stereoscopic
head mounted displays.
- Masako Omori (Nagoya University, Japan) presented material from her poster
paper "Recognition of stereoscopic images among elderly people" from the
Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII conference. This paper will appear in
Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4662.
Photographs of these demonstrations can be seen at the conference web site (see
The final session of this year's Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference was
the Keynote Presentation, presented by Vince Pace of Pace Technologies (Sun Valley,
California). Vince's presentation titled "TITANIC in 3D HDTV" discussed the work that
has gone into the filming of the new 3D film "Ghost of the Abyss" that is expected to be
released in IMAX 3D theatres this year. The production crew, led by Academy Award
winning Director James Cameron, returned to the famous wreck of the RMS Titanic in
August of 2001. Rather than using the large and expensive 70-mm IMAX 3D camera
system, a world-class team was brought together to solve the numerous technical
problems in imaging the famous wreck site in the new High Definition 24P digital video
format under 12,500 ft of water. When edited, the stereoscopic HD video will be slowscan
laser transferred to IMAX 70-mm motion picture film for release. Vince's
presentation was richly illustrated with a wide variety of photos taken on the expedition
and during the camera system's development. Following Vince's presentation, Emory
Kristof (National Geographic Society) introduced the 3D Video footage he filmed at the
Titanic wreck site back in 1991. The footage was played back from dual Betacam SP
decks on the conference's large rear-screen 3D video projection system.
In closing the Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference we took the
opportunity to thank those who made this conference successful at the meeting. The
staff at SPIE and IS&T are instrumental in helping organize the meeting. The conference
committee plays an important role in ensuring the correct technical direction of the
meeting. A particular thank you goes to Brad Nelson (Nelsonex, Los Gatos, California),
Spectrum Audiovisual (Denver, Colorado), and David Mark (Mark Resources LLC, San
Francisco, California) for providing and supporting the raft of audiovisual equipment
that we used to present the audience with the wide range of 3D material that was on
show during the technical sessions. Thanks also to our outgoing committee member
Mike Weissman (Karl Storz Imaging, Santa Barbara, California) who has provided a
wealth of support for the conference over the eight plus years that he has been on the
conference committee. But most importantly we must thank the conference authors and
attendees whom ultimately make this meeting the successful event that it is.
Finally we would like to mention four last items regarding the Stereoscopic Displays and
Applications conference: the 3D prize, the SD&A virtual library, a technical comment,
and the conference website:
This year we again offered a prize for the best use of stereoscopic display methods
during the paper presentations. This year's prize was awarded to James Tam from the
Communications Research Center in Canada for his presentation on the asymmetrical
coding of stereoscopic video sequences which was aptly illustrated by a field-sequential
3D video sequence played back from BetacamSP tape. James's prize was a copy of the
Stereoscopic Displays and Applications CD-ROM.
The new Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Virtual Library was opened for
business in September of 2001. There are many old texts on the topic of stereoscopic
imaging which are now hard to obtain because of their age. The intention of the SD&A
Virtual Library is to once again make some of these texts easily accessible—but this
time in electronic format. The first book in the Virtual Library is Lenny Lipton's 1983
book "Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema: A Study in Depth". The book is available
for download from the conference website as a 14- or 32-MB
Adobe Acrobat 'pdf' file - a format that accurately captures the original detail of the
book in a fully searchable format. Up until the time of the conference over 150 copies
of the book had been downloaded. At the conference the next book to appear in the
Virtual Library was announced; it is the 1953 book "Three-Dimensional Photography"
by Herbert McKay. This should be on the conference website by the time this
conference proceedings goes to print.
The chairs would like to make comment on a technical issue that was evident during
the technical presentations at this year's conference and is also evident in the wider 3D
literature. Reference is often made to the "toed-in vs. parallel camera configurations".
It has been widely documented that the toed-in camera configuration results in the
presence of keystone distortion and depth-plane curvature, and that the parallel camera
configuration can be used to avoid these distortions (e.g. Woods, et al, "Image
Distortions in Stereoscopic Video Systems", in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications
IV, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 1915, Bellingham,
Washington, USA, pp.36-48 (1993)). However, it is important to point out that the
parallel camera configuration must be implemented with some form of horizontal image
shift (either at the camera, display or by intermediate processing) for it to be analogous
to the toed-in camera configuration (but without the two mentioned distortions). If the
parallel camera configuration is implemented without image shift, the convergence or
zero parallax distance will be at infinity and all images will be cast in front of the
display screen. In most cases the parallel camera configuration should be implemented
with some horizontal image shift so that a more suitable convergence or zero parallax
distance is defined. Since there is a big difference between the parallel camera
configuration with horizontal image shift and the parallel camera configuration without
image shift, the alert reader should be careful to identify whether or not image shift is
intended when reference is made to the parallel camera configuration. The difference
can give a totally different meaning to the results or assumptions of the discussion.
The conference activities don't stop at the end of the January meeting. The SD&A
conference website remains as a focus for conference activities during the time between
conferences. We will be seeking abstracts for the 2003 conference mid-year. You can
join one of the stereoscopic standards committees via the website. You can also join a
mailing list to receive conference announcements. The SD&A conference website
provides a focal point for these activities, a timetable for important meeting deadlines,
and also highlights the activities of past conferences. Visit the conference website to
gain an understanding of the past, present, and future of stereoscopic imaging, and
most of all think now about presenting a paper or attending next year's conference. The
Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference website is located at:
This year's The Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality (TERoVR) conference was
bursting at the seams with presentations starting early in the morning and extending
past the typical conference end. Highlighted papers from the conference concentrate
either on systems that increased availability to a wider audience, or VR technologies
that were integrated into working systems from other disciplines. Examples of such
integrated systems include Wes Bethel's Interactive Stereo Electron Microscopy
Enhanced with Virtual Reality; Mario Lanzagorta's look at Usability Engineering for a
specific military application; and Guillaume Moreau's presentation of Stereoscopic
Displays for Virtual Reality in the Car Manufacturing Industry. Papers highlighting the
trend toward ubiquity included Dave Pape's paper on Low-cost Projection-based VR
displays; M. Ihara's Cyber Entertainment System using an Immersive Networked Virtual
Environment; and R.P. Simpsons work at Midwestern State University on an Objectoriented
framework for Rapid Game Prototyping. Special thanks go to Shojiro Nagata
and Andreas Simon for their special efforts during this conference.
As a final note, we would like to make you aware that the January 2003 SD&A and
TERoVR conferences will be held at a new venue: the Santa Clara Convention Center
in Santa Clara, California. The Electronic Imaging (EI) symposium (of which SD&A &
TERoVR are part) has outgrown its association with Photonics West and is breaking off
into a separate meeting. This is not totally unfamiliar territory - the Santa Clara
Convention Center is just 7 miles away from the San Jose Convention Center, and is in
fact the location where the first Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference was
held back in 1990. So please remember, the January 2003 SD&A and TERoVR
conferences will be held in Santa Clara as part of the 2003 IS&T/SPIE Electronic
Imaging symposium. They will not be held as part of Photonics West which remains in
San Jose but on the week following Electronic Imaging. Please consider attending,
presenting, or demonstrating at the 2003 meeting in what should be an even bigger
and better event.
Andrew J. Woods
Mark T. Bolas
John O. Merritt
Stephen A. Benton